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The Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
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J Adhes Dent 16 (2014), No. 5     21. Nov. 2014
J Adhes Dent 16 (2014), No. 5  (21.11.2014)

Page 451-458, doi:10.3290/j.jad.a32663, PubMed:25191667


Effect of Surface and Heat Treatments on the Biaxial Flexural Strength and Phase Transformation of a Y-TZP Ceramic
Fonseca, Renata Garcia / Abi-Rached, Filipe de Oliveira / da Silva, Filipe Samuel Correia Pereira / Henriques, Bruno Alexandre Pacheco de Castro / Pinelli, Ligia Antunes Pereira
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of grinding and airborne-particle abrasion on the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) and phase transformation of a Y-TZP ceramic, and examine whether sintering the veneering porcelain renders the previous heat treatment recommended by the manufacturer unnecessary.
Materials and Methods: Lava zirconia specimens (N = 108) were obtained with the following dimensions: 14.0 mm diameter × 1.3 mm thickness (n = 36) and 14.0 mm × 1.6 mm (n = 72). The thicker specimens were ground with diamond burs under irrigation and received (heat-treated groups) or not (non-heat-treated groups) a heat treatment (1000°C for 30 min) prior to the four firing cycles applied to simulate the sintering of the veneering porcelain. All specimens were air abraded as follows (n = 12): 1) 30-μm silica-modified Al2O3 particles (Rocatec Soft); 2) 110-μm silica-modified Al2O3 particles (Rocatec Plus); and 3) 120-μm Al2O3 particles, followed by Rocatec Plus. Three specimens of each group were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) to assess the monoclinic phase content (%). The BFS test was performed in a mechanical testing machine (Instron 8874). Data (MPa) were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (grinding × airborne-particle abrasion and heat treatment × airborne-particle abrasion) and Tukey's post-hoc test (α = 0.05). The strength reliability was analyzed using the Weibull distribution.
Results: Grinding significantly decreased the BFS of the non-heat-treated groups (p < 0.01). Within the ground groups, the previous heat treatment did not influence the BFS (p > 0.05). Air abrasion only influenced the BFS of the ground/heat-treated groups (p < 0.01). For the non-heat-treated groups, the grinding did not decrease the Weibull modulus (m), but it did decrease the characteristic strength (σ0). For Rocatec Soft and 120-μm Al2O3 particles + Rocatec Plus, the heat-treated groups presented lower m and higher σ0 than the ground/non-heat-treated groups. The independent variables did not seem to influence phase transformation. Air-abraded surfaces presented higher monoclinic zirconia content than the as-sintered and ground surfaces, which exhibited similar content.
Conclusion: Even under irrigation, grinding compromised the Y-TZP ceramic strength. The sintering of the veneering porcelain rendered the previous heat treatment recommended by the manufacturer unnecessary. Airborneparticle abrasion influenced the strength of heat-treated zirconia.

Keywords: zirconia, airborne-particle abrasion, grinding, heat treatment, biaxial flexural strength